The computer industry is relatively young, compared to other industries, even in the area of telecommunications, such as telephony, however, the rapid growth and lower costs mean that today computers are within reach of the vast majority of people and practically all companies.
Along with the proliferation of computers, the need arose to interconnect them, in order to exchange, store and process information.
Concept Of Data Networks
Data network refers to those communication infrastructures or networks that have been specifically designed to transmit information through the exchange of data. Data networks are designed and built-in Architectures that are intended to serve your usage goals.
Data networks are generally based on packet communication and are classified according to their size, the distance they cover and their physical architecture.
Classification Of Data Network
- LAN ( Local Area Network, Local Area Networks): Local area networks are usually a limited network connecting equipment within a single building, office or campus, most are privately owned.
- MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network, Metropolitan Area Networks): Networks metropolitan areas are designed for connecting computers over an entire city. A MAN network can be a single network that interconnects several local area networks LAN’s resulting in a larger network. Therefore, a MAN can be owned exclusively by the same private company, or it can be a public service network that connects public and private networks.
- WAN ( Wide Area Networks, Wide Area Networks): Networks wide area are those that provide a transmission medium over large geographical areas (regional, national and even international). A WAN network generally uses public service networks and private networks that can span the globe.
- PAN (Personal Area Networks, Personal Area Networks ): The PAN networks are very limited extent (a few meters) and are used to interconnect personal devices wirelessly (PCs, laptops, cell phones, PDAs, printers, etc.) These networks are medium speed (some Mb / s) and have been increasing in development in recent years.
- Broadcast Networks: Where the same transmission medium is shared among all members of the network. Each message (typically called a “packet”) issued by one machine is received by all the other machines on the same network. Each package has the information of “Origin” and “Destination” and in this way, who must process each message is discriminated. For example, Ethernet is a broadcast network.
- Point-to-point Networks: Where there are many connections between individual pairs of machines. To send messages to distant machines, it may be necessary to go through several intermediate machines. For example, MODEM connections are point-to-point networks.
The Basic Structure Of A Data Network
- Sometimes in a telecommunications cabinet or cabinet where Hubs and Pach Panels are placed in an orderly manner.
- The servers on which the information available to the user is located and processed are the system administrator.
- The Hubs, which act as a signal amplifier, and to which the nodes are connected. Said link or spinal column of the system is recommended to be carried out in Optical Fiber or in UTP cable, which we will talk about later.
- The “Pach Panel’s”, which are cable organizers.
- The “Pach Cord”, which is a UTP type cable only with greater flexibility than the current UTP (the one used in horizontal cabling), which interconnects the “Pach Panel” with the “Hub”, as well as the sockets or wall plates with each of the terminals (PC’s).
- Finally, what is known as Horizontal Wiring in which UTP cable is usually used, and connects the patch panel with each of the wall plates?
- When designing the structured cabling of a data network, a wide range of aspects must be taken into account, both technically and economically, depending on the requirements of the system, for which there are various types of cables. and their categories, among which we can mention the following:
- Coaxial cable
- UTP and ScTP
- Optical fibre